ELISA for Hemolytic Anemia
Hemolytic anemia introduction
Hemolytic anemia (or haemolytic anaemia) is a form of anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells (RBCs), either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the human body (extravascular). It has numerous possible causes, ranging from relatively harmless to life-threatening. The general classification of hemolytic anemia is either inherited or acquired. Treatment depends on the cause and nature of the breakdown.
Symptoms and signs of hemolytic anemia
Symptoms of hemolytic anemia are similar to other forms of anemia (fatigue and shortness of breath), but in addition, the breakdown of red cells leads to jaundice and increases the risk of particular long-term complications, such as gallstones and pulmonary hypertension.
In general, signs of anemia (pallor, fatigue, shortness of breath, and potential for heart failure) are present. In small children, failure to thrive may occur in any form of anemia. Certain aspects of the medical history can suggest a cause for hemolysis, such as drugs, consumption of fava beans, the presence of prosthetic heart valve, or other medical illness. Chronic hemolysis leads to an increased excretion of bilirubin into the biliary tract, which in turn may lead to gallstones.
The continuous release of free hemoglobin has been linked with the development of pulmonary hypertension (increased pressure over the pulmonary artery); this, in turn, leads to episodes of syncope (fainting), chest pain, and progressive breathlessness. Pulmonary hypertension eventually causes right ventricular heart failure, the symptoms of which are peripheral edema (fluid accumulation in the skin of the legs) and ascites (fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity).